Media filters are the age-old way to filter water until it is fit for purpose. Most municipal drinking water systems worldwide use a filtration solution that consists of a rapid sand filter, often combined with the traditional slow sand filter. 

A bed of fine sand supported by suitable drainage materials goes a long way in removing suspended solids. Today the gravity-driven process usually involves not only sedimentation, but also chemically induced coagulation and flocculation.
Rapid gravity filtration has very little effect on the impurities dissolved in drinking water, unless activated carbon is used in the filter medium. In an additional treatment step, disinfection with chlorine or ozone is then necessary to improve taste and smell.

Sand filters are usually part of large and complex multi-stage treatment systems. They must be cleaned frequently and often need several backwashes a day to remain effective.

Other forms of media filtration include pressure filter systems and biofiltration, which uses microorganisms and biodegradation, either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Media filters can use ranges of organic and inorganic materials to purify water to the right quality for aquaculture, irrigation, or the swimming pool. They can also remove pollutants from urban runoff in stormwater management. In many cases, the limited lifespan of the filter medium is a major cost factor. 

If you have any questions, please contact us.

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